In laboratories all over the world, scientists are experimenting with the microscopic or very tiny chemical building blocks of life itself called genes. By using mixing and changing genes, scientists have already created fish that glow in the dark, plants that can kill their own pests and farm animals that produce more milk and meat. The technology could mean the future of the mortal race will be modified. Genetically modified organisms are what we call plants and animals that have been genetically altered by scientists. An organism in which the inheritable material has been changed in a way that doesn’t be naturally.
A GMO is one that has had its genetic material altered through one of several methods. GM foods are classified into three generations.
Firstgeneration– crops have enhanced input traits such as herbicide tolerance, better insect resistance and better tolerance to environment stress.
Secondgeneration– crops that added high value output traits such as nutrient enhancement for animal feed.
Thirdgeneration– crops include those that produce pharmaceuticals improve the processing of bio-based fuels or produces products beyond food and fiber.
The development production and marketing of GM foods were initially performed due to concerns over crop protection. Both producers and consumers believed that GM foods could be beneficial nutrients and helpful for overcoming the future food shortage. Additionally to increased plant protection from diseases, insects and herbicides.
Advantages and disadvantages are as follow:-
According to a biomedical researcher genetically modified crops are designed to be extra fast growing, extra, resistance to pests and extra healthy. There are some advantages as under:
- Lesser fungicides: genetically modified crops are altered so that they are less susceptible to pests and insects. These crops come with a natural pesticide and hence there is no need for spraying harmful pesticides. When they are used, there is a low health risk for people consuming these crops and minor environmental damage.
- Cheap- genetically modified crops are farmed to grow resourcefully. This helps farmers produce the same amount of food using less labour, less water and a very minimum amount of pesticide compared to other conventional crops. Because some resources are required for production, food producers also charge lower prices for these foods.
- Rich in nutrients- some specific genetically modified crops are designed for providing more nutrients like vitamins and minerals. These crops can help in those regions where people suffer from nutritional deficiencies.
- Increased yield- genetically modified crops are prepared to be resistance to disease due to increased yields these crops can provide food for a swiftly increasing population. More production in small land areas.
The GM crops offer many advantages by reducing costs and producing crops with increased yields, but they also have certain disadvantages.
- Increasedantibioticresistance– while creating genetically modified crops, scientist insert certain additional genes for specific modifications, while inserting new DNA into the cells of plants, an another gene is added that makes the cells have resistance to antibiotics. Then an antibiotic is used to kill off any plant cells that did not take in the new DNA successful.
- Allergicreactions– since genetically modified crops contain the DNA of other organisms, the new DNA will likely active allergic reactions in people who usually would not be allergic to the same food.
- Toxinproduction– it may have increased toxin production at levels already harmful to humans. These toxins produced either due to damage of the gene while inserting it into the DNA of another plant or when the gene inserted is not accepted by the receiver organism. Thus, consuming these foods with the toxin may cause harm to one’s health.
- Reducednutrientvalue– There are reports that certain genetically modified foods are void of nutritional value. As genetic engineering focuses more on improving and increasing production, extending the lifespan of such crops and preventing pests, the nutritional value is often overlooked.
Overall, we find that people generally do not know much about genetically modified foods. There seems to be a lack of research about GMOs and the research that has been done does not show a promising future for our world if their use continues at the rate it is. GMOs negatively affect all aspects of life not only to health reasons but economic as well.