‘A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush’ – this adage applies to financial transactions too. Say, someone borrowed a certain amount from you and it is due. Just as you are expecting the money to be credited to your account, you get a call from the borrower saying that he will pay you after 3 months. You are not happy about this. This is because you are aware of the time value of money or TVM.

There is no reason for any rational person to delay taking an amount owed to him or her. More than financial principles, this is a basic instinct. The money you have in hand at the moment is worth more than the same amount you ‘may’ get in the future. One reason for this is inflation and another is possible earning capacity. The fundamental code of finance maintains that given money can generate interest; the value of a certain sum is more if you receive it sooner. This is why it is called the present value.


The time value of money validates that it is more beneficial to have cash now than later. Say, if you invest a Rs. 100 today – the returns will be more compared to the same investment made 2 months from now. Moreover, there is always a risk that the borrower might delay even more or not pay at all in the future.

Present Value is the same as Time Value as elaborated above. It is the money you have currently that is equal to a future one-time disbursal or several part-payments – discounted by a suitable rate of interest.

Future Value is the sum of money that any saving scheme with a compounded interest will build to by a pre-decided future date. It applies to both lumpsum as well as recurring investments.

Based on your financial circumstances at the time, the TVM formula can vary to some extent. The present value formula quantifies how fast the value of money declines. This formula shows you how much once a single cash payment (FV) received in a future period (t) is worth in today’s terms (PV). For example, in the case of annuity (income) or perpetuity (until death) pension payments, the general formula can have more components. 


FV = PV x [ 1 + (I/ N) ] (N*T)


 FV is Future value of money,

 PV is Present value of money,

 I am the interest rate,

 N is the number of compounding periods annually and

 T is the number of years in the tenure.

For instance, if you invest Rs. 1 lakh for 5 years at 10% interest, the future value of this one lakh will be Rs. 161,051 as per the formula. This formula can help you to analyze different investments over different periods, enabling you to make optimal and informed financial decisions.

How often the invested amount of compounds too has a huge impact on future value. See how increasing the compounding frequency in the above example makes a difference to the earnings.

Monthly: Rs. 164530.89

 Quarterly: Rs. 163,861.64

 Semi-annually: Rs. 162889.46

 Annually: Rs. 161,051

This is where the power of compounding works. It proves that TVM is dependent on the interest rate, tenure as well as the number of compounding periods per financial year.

Now that you have grasped the concept of time value and future value, we hope you also understand why it is important to start investing. If you invest with Clear tax Invest, you have handpicked funds from top fund houses presented before you to choose from. They are well-researched and have generated good returns historically. Invest Now.

Twinkle Grover


New Delhi, India

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Rashmi Gujrati

Prof. Dr. Rashmi Gujrati , Professor-Dean (International Affairs) CT University, India President-Editor-In-Chief Tradepreneur Global Academic Platform, UK (Institution of Research & Development) Qualification: M.com, MBA, Ph.D. Specialization: Marketing, Finance & International Business, Entrepreneurship. Editor-In-Chief International Journal of Business Operation Editorial Board member of (IJEFMS) Science Publish Group, USA Editorial Board Member of Academic for Global Business Advancement Association, USA Reviewer of Common Ground Research Networks University of Illinois, USA Reviewer IBIMA Association, Spain Scientific Review Committee, Advisory Board Member of AASE Member Chung Yuan Christiana University, Taiwan Scientific Board Member of InTraders Academic Platform, Turkey Editorial Board Member of Journal of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Animal Sciences, Turkey Indian Commerce Association Indian Accounting Association Indian College Principals Association Review & Editorial Committee Board Member Laescuela Education Scientific Committee Member of Research Synergy Foundation (RSF) Indonesia Editorial & Review Committee member FSSER Malaysia Editorial & Review Committee member GI-SSF Malaysia +919759347347

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